Research > Research Inventory > Cognitive-Motor Learning: Learning

Feasibility of a Kinect®-based rehabilitation strategy after burn injury.

Authors: Pham TN, Wong JN, Terken T, Gibran NS, Carrougher GJ, Bunnell A. | Year: 2018
Summary/Results: This study evaluated Jintronix games and therapy modules for burn patients using the Kinect platform. One of the modules was a climbing experience where burn patients had to move their hands and feet as if they were climbing a wall. Overall, participants reported an enjoyable experience. The climbing module was considered the most difficult. Beta-Angel note: we included this paper because the burn rehabilitation protocol involved climbing.
Reference: Burns. 2018 Dec;44(8):2080-2086.
Cognitive-Motor Learning > Learning

Venga!: climbing in mixed reality

Author: M. Tiator, C. Geiger, B. Dewitz, B. Fischer | Year: 2018
Summary/Results: Conference paper showing development of a “mixed reality” system that simulates climbing on a wall using virtual reality technology. Additionally, outside users can get involved in the virtual climber’s environment in order to facilitate the teaching and learning process. Beta-Angel note: article comes amid a spate of mixed/virtual/augmented reality papers on climbing including “Cliffhanger-VR” and “Exploring Rock Climbing in Mixed Reality Environments” and “ClimbVis: Investigating In-situ visualizations for Understanding Climbing Movements by Demonstration”
Reference: Conference Paper, July 2018 – First Superhuman Sports Design Challenge
Cognitive-Motor Learning > Learning


Author: M. Tiator, B. Fischer, L. Gerhardt, D. Nowottnik | Year: 2018
Summary/Results: Researchers presented a virtual reality system they believe can facilitate mental training in climbers by simulating fear and anxiety. The authors note, however, that further research needs to be done to test whether the system causes an emotional response helpful to mental training for real rock climbing.
Reference: Conference Paper, March 2018 – IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR)
Cognitive-Motor Learning > Learning

Constraints representing a meta-stable régime facilitate exploration during practice and transfer of learning in a complex multi-articular task.

Author: D. Orth, K. Davids, L. Seifert | Year: 2018
Summary/Results: The authors were primarily interested in seeing how two indicators (hip exploration and hand exploration) of climbing efficiency were learned by lower grade level (5.9ish) and intermediate level (5.10b-ish) athletes after practice on 3 routes (horizontal edge, vertical edge, and dual-type edge). A “test” route appeared to be a valid way to test the transfer of skills after practice – lower level climbers appeared to transfer what they learned in both hip and hand exploration, while advanced climbers only appeared to transfer what they learned about hip exploration. Authors suggest this is likely due to distinctions in previous experience. Beta-Angel note: the authors suggest that giving climbers a “choice” of grabbing options may induce exploratory learning behavior which may improve hip fluency, but admit this will have to wait for future research.
Reference: Hum Mov Sci. 2018 Feb;57:291-302.
Cognitive-Motor Learning > Learning

Affordance Realization in Climbing: Learning and Transfer.

Author: L. Seifert, D. Orth, B. Mantel, J. Boulanger, R. Hérault, M. Dicks | Year: 2018
Summary/Results: The authors of this study studied the effect of learning across three different types of hold orientations: a horizontal-edge route, a vertical-edge route, and a horizontal-with-vertical edge route, and then tested for the transfer of that learning to a route which had a mix of hold orientations. Several indicators of learning occurred, specifically less exploratory grasping and an increased perception of hold-usability, suggesting that learning did occur. However, learning and transfer appeared dependent on the complexity of the route, with improvement coming primarily on the horizontal-edge route, and did not appear to transfer particularly well on the non-horizontal hold sections. Beta-Angel note: the authors suggest that more sessions (there were four “practice” sessions) OR more variability in hold placement (they were placed in sections) than was done in their study may create better transfer of learning.
Reference: Front Psychol. 2018 Jun 12;9:949.
Cognitive-Motor Learning > Learning

Behavioral Repertoire Influences the Rate and Nature of Learning in Climbing: Implications for Individualized Learning Design in Preparation for Extreme Sports Participation.

Author: D. Orth, K. Davids, JY Chow, E. Brymer, L. Seifert | Year: 2018
Summary/Results: The authors ran a study to see whether: (1) climbers who have more complex movement also have longer periods of being immobile while on the wall (likely in order to stabilize a third measurement: the jerkiness of the hips); and (2) the rates of the different efficiency measurements (movement complexity, immobility-to-mobility, and hip jerkiness) would plateau at different rates. The authors found that movement complexity and immobility did not necessarily go together, possibly because the climbers were too “practiced” at the route. The three indicators of efficiency did get better at different rates: hip jerkiness and movement complexity plateaued (ceased getting better) after 7 sessions, while immobility-to-mobility plateaued after 9 sessions. Beta-Angel note: the most important part of this study, however, comes from an analysis of individual variation. The authors basically contend that learning is dependent less on labels like “beginner” and more on the specific-skills identified prior to practice. In this case, whether a climber knew of the skillset to turn their hip into the wall prior to the experiment predicted whether they would find continuous improvement (knew skill) or sudden improvement (did not know skill). Arguably a landmark study in climbing synthesizing the dynamic between effectiveness (learning new movement patterns) and efficiency (becoming “better” at the patterns we know) with significant potential to inform the conversation around measuring the impact of technical interventions.
Reference: Front Psychol. 2018 Jun 12;9:949.
Cognitive-Motor Learning > Learning

ClimbVis: Investigating In-situ Visualizations for Understanding Climbing Movements by Demonstration

Authors: Kosmalla et al. | Year: 2017
Reference: ISS ’17, October 17-20, 2017, Brighton, United Kingdom
Link to Research
Cognitive Motor-Learning > Learning

Exploring Rock Climbing in Mixed Reality Environments

Authors: Kosmalla et al. | Year: 2017
Reference: CHI 2017, May 6-11, 2017, Denver, CO, USA
Link to Research
Cognitive Motor-Learning > Learning

What variability tells us about motor expertise: measurements and perspectives from a complex system approach

AUTHOR: John Komar, Ludovic Seifert and Régis Thouvarecq | Year: 2015
SUMMARY/RESULTS: A theoretical discussion of movement using several methods associated with complex systems theory, and an approach to determining a climber’s range of movement. Conclusion suggests that experts display extreme individual range of movement based on their own unique body and mind and that this is better than performing a predetermined motor pattern which may not work for an individual.   Researchers suggest enhancing individual range of movement during the learning process to enhance adaptability and performance.
REFERENCE: Movement & Sport Sciences – Science & Motricité 89, 65–77 (2015)

The “Function-to-Flow” model: An interdisciplinary approach to assessing movement within and beyond the context of climbing

AUTHOR: R. Lloyd | Year: 2015
SUMMARY/RESULTS: Lloyd used interviews, journal entries, and observational analysis to evaluate the Function-to-Flow (F2F) interdisciplinary curriculum support tool in 153 students participating in a climbing program. Lloyd suggests that the F2F model can help expand on isolated movement patterns typical of traditional physical education programs by helping students to understand how to break down movement into muscular “function”, desired “form”, kinesthetic “feeling”, and the experience of “flow”.
REFERENCE: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, v20 n6 p571-592 2015

Virtual and “real-life” wall/rock climbing: motor movement comparisons and video gaming pedagogical perceptions

AUTHOR: SE Jenny, DP Schary | Year: 2015
SUMMARY/RESULTS: Researchers attempted to determine whether a video game (Xbox One’s Kinect Sports Rivals Rock Climbing) would be useful when trying to teach actual (real) climbing movement. Researchers found that the video game was helpful with respect to climbing tactics/strategies and arm movements, but different with respect to effort and leg use, finger and grip use, and jumping movement, suggesting to the authors that caution should be taken in comparisons of video game climbing and “authentic climbing”.
REFERENCE: Journal of Sports Technology, Vol. 8, Issue 3-4 (2015)

Hold design supports learning and transfer of climbing fluency

AUTHOR: D. Orth, K. Davids, L. Seifert | Year: 2014
SUMMARY/RESULTS: Orth et al. measured the direction of the hips to determine whether a route with either (a) holds that had only one side to grab, or (b) holds with multiple sides to grab, would be more effective toward learning. The researchers suggest that making multiple possible ways of grabbing a hold will induce more learning than situations in which only one way to grab a hold is possible.
REFERENCE: Journal of Sports Technology, Vol. 7, Issue 3-4, (2014)

A constraints-based approach to the acquisition of expertise in outdoor adventure sports*

AUTHORS: K. Davids, E. Brymer, L. Seifert, D. Orth | Year: 2013
SUMMARY/RESULTS: Researchers examined the use of a “constraints-based framework” for adventure sports, which suggests that learning occurs as a result of an interaction between the learner and their environment. This framework suggests that expert athletes need to experience the environment in order to understand the best way to interact with it and that both learners and teachers can best help this process by manipulating the environment to promote the emergence of the learner’s individualized movement response rather than forcing imitation of “expert” behaviors. Beta-Angel note: And that’s why route-setters make the big bucks…
REFERENCE: Complex Systems in Sport. Book Chapter, Routledge. 2013

Skill transfer, affordances and dexterity in different climbing environments

Author: L. Seifert, L. Wattebled, M. L’Hermette, G. Bideault, R. Herault, K. Davids | Year: 2013
Summary/Results: In a foundational study, researchers looked at how existing skillsets (rock climbing) transfer to new, overlapping environments (ice climbing) by studying how participants with different levels of rock climbing experience handled ice climbing.  The authors found three characteristics of skill transfer: (1) better rock climbers had better ice climbing movement efficiency, (2) better rock climbers could identify more effective ice climbing opportunities, and (3) better rock climbers showed a larger range of inter-limb coordination patterns and angular locations of limbs, suggesting a greater range of freedom in exploring the environment.  However, some ice climbing skill sets were not transferred much, if at all.  Beta-Angel note: it should be noted that this has broader implications beyond transfer to ice climbing.  The researchers were testing adaptability and as such ice climbing represented a new, novel environment.  However, this article has potential implications for existing skill transfer to new types of rock climbing.
Reference: Human Movement Science 32 (2013) 1339-1352

Inexperienced sport climbers might perceive and utilize new opportunities for action by merely observing a model

AUTHORS: MS Boschker, FC Bakker | Year: 2002
SUMMARY/RESULTS: Researchers set out to test whether watching an experienced climber enables less experienced climbers to perform better using video models. Boschker and Bakker suggest that the less experienced climbers were able to use the video of experienced climbers to improve their own speed and fluency in climbing, as measured by the amount of movement in the less experienced climbers’ center of gravity.  Beta-Angel Note: Orth, Kerr, Davids, and Seifert (2017) suggested that the utility of this study is in suggesting that (1) prior knowledge of advanced limb coordination techniques is useful for beginners, and (2) practice of less advanced techniques improved climbing fluency (GIE) similarly to advanced techniques.
REFERENCE: Percept Mot Skills. 2002 Aug;95(1):3-9.

Entropy as a global variable of the learning process

Author: P. Cordier, MM France, J. Pailhous, B. Bolon | Year: 1994
Summary/Results: The study’s authors looked at how entropy (defined as movement of the center of mass from an ‘ideal’ trajectory for the route) differs between expert and non-expert climbers on a trial of 10 routes in a row.  The study’s authors found that experts stabilize their climbing entropy by trial 3 while non-experts stabilize their climbing entropy by trial 6 (of 10).  Beta-Angel note: from a practical standpoint, this both (1) suggests that climbers should do routes multiple times while perfecting climbing fluency, and (2) suggests a set of parameters for the number of repeat attempts on a route based on ability level in order to improve climbing economy.  As a side note, this paper is also a foundational treatise on how we learn as climbers.
Reference: Human Movement Sciene 13 (1994) 745-763

Thermodynamic study of motor behavior optimization

AUTHORS: P. Cordier, MM France, P. Bolon, J. Pailhous | Year: 1994
SUMMARY/RESULTS: See: Entropy, degrees of freedom, and free climbing: a thermodynamic study of a complex behavior based on trajectory analysis.
REFERENCE: Acta Biotheoretica September 1994, Volume 42, Issue 2–3, pp 187–201

Entropy, degrees of freedom, and free climbing: a thermodynamic study of a complex behavior based on trajectory analysis

AUTHORS: P. Cordier, MM France, B. Bolon, J. Pailhous | Year: 1993
SUMMARY/RESULTS: Researchers measured the “geometric entropy” of movement (defined as movement of the center of mass from an ‘ideal’ trajectory for the route) on three average climbers and four skilled climbers over 10 successive tries of a moderate climb. Cordier et al. showed that entropy decreases as learning progresses. Beta-Angel note: see “Thermodynamic study of motor behavior optimization” for more by the same authors.
REFERENCE: International Journal of Sport Psychology 1993 Vol.24 No.4 pp.370-378 ref.13 and