Research > Research Inventory > Cognitive-Motor Learning: Learning

What variability tells us about motor expertise: measurements and perspectives from a complex system approach

AUTHOR: John Komar, Ludovic Seifert and Régis Thouvarecq | Year: 2015
SUMMARY/RESULTS: A theoretical discussion of movement using several methods associated with complex systems theory, and an approach to determining a climber’s range of movement. Conclusion suggests that experts display extreme individual range of movement based on their own unique body and mind and that this is better than performing a predetermined motor pattern which may not work for an individual.   Researchers suggest enhancing individual range of movement during the learning process to enhance adaptability and performance.
REFERENCE: Movement & Sport Sciences – Science & Motricité 89, 65–77 (2015)

The “Function-to-Flow” model: An interdisciplinary approach to assessing movement within and beyond the context of climbing

AUTHOR: R. Lloyd | Year: 2015
SUMMARY/RESULTS: Lloyd used interviews, journal entries, and observational analysis to evaluate the Function-to-Flow (F2F) interdisciplinary curriculum support tool in 153 students participating in a climbing program. Lloyd suggests that the F2F model can help expand on isolated movement patterns typical of traditional physical education programs by helping students to understand how to break down movement into muscular “function”, desired “form”, kinesthetic “feeling”, and the experience of “flow”.
REFERENCE: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, v20 n6 p571-592 2015

Virtual and “real-life” wall/rock climbing: motor movement comparisons and video gaming pedagogical perceptions

AUTHOR: SE Jenny, DP Schary | Year: 2015
SUMMARY/RESULTS: Researchers attempted to determine whether a video game (Xbox One’s Kinect Sports Rivals Rock Climbing) would be useful when trying to teach actual (real) climbing movement. Researchers found that the video game was helpful with respect to climbing tactics/strategies and arm movements, but different with respect to effort and leg use, finger and grip use, and jumping movement, suggesting to the authors that caution should be taken in comparisons of video game climbing and “authentic climbing”.
REFERENCE: Journal of Sports Technology, Vol. 8, Issue 3-4 (2015)

Hold design supports learning and transfer of climbing fluency

AUTHOR: D. Orth, K. Davids, L. Seifert | Year: 2014
SUMMARY/RESULTS: Orth et al. measured the direction of the hips to determine whether a route with either (a) holds that had only one side to grab, or (b) holds with multiple sides to grab, would be more effective toward learning. The researchers suggest that making multiple possible ways of grabbing a hold will induce more learning than situations in which only one way to grab a hold is possible.
REFERENCE: Journal of Sports Technology, Vol. 7, Issue 3-4, (2014)

A constraints-based approach to the acquisition of expertise in outdoor adventure sports*

AUTHORS: K. Davids, E. Brymer, L. Seifert, D. Orth | Year: 2013
SUMMARY/RESULTS: Researchers examined the use of a “constraints-based framework” for adventure sports, which suggests that learning occurs as a result of an interaction between the learner and their environment. This framework suggests that expert athletes need to experience the environment in order to understand the best way to interact with it and that both learners and teachers can best help this process by manipulating the environment to promote the emergence of the learner’s individualized movement response rather than forcing imitation of “expert” behaviors. Beta-Angel note: And that’s why route-setters make the big bucks…
REFERENCE: Complex Systems in Sport. Book Cahpter, Routledge. 2013

Skill transfer, affordances and dexterity in different climbing environments

Author: L. Seifert, L. Wattebled, M. L’Hermette, G. Bideault, R. Herault, K. Davids | Year: 2013
Summary/Results: In a foundational study, researchers looked at how existing skillsets (rock climbing) transfer to new, overlapping environments (ice climbing) by studying how participants with different levels of rock climbing experience handled ice climbing.  The authors found three characteristics of skill transfer: (1) better rock climbers had better ice climbing movement efficiency, (2) better rock climbers could identify more effective ice climbing opportunities, and (3) better rock climbers showed a larger range of inter-limb coordination patterns and angular locations of limbs, suggesting a greater range of freedom in exploring the environment.  However, some ice climbing skill sets were not transferred much, if at all.  Beta-Angel note: it should be noted that this has broader implications beyond transfer to ice climbing.  The researchers were testing adaptability and as such ice climbing represented a new, novel environment.  However, this article has potential implications for existing skill transfer to new types of rock climbing.
Reference: Human Movement Science 32 (2013) 1339-1352

Inexperienced sport climbers might perceive and utilize new opportunities for action by merely observing a model

AUTHORS: MS Boschker, FC Bakker | Year: 2002
SUMMARY/RESULTS: Researchers set out to test whether watching an experienced climber enables less experienced climbers to perform better using video models. Boschker and Bakker suggest that the less experienced climbers were able to use the video of experienced climbers to improve their own speed and fluency in climbing, as measured by the amount of movement in the less experienced climbers’ center of gravity.  Beta-Angel Note: Orth, Kerr, Davids, and Seifert (2017) suggested that the utility of this study is in suggesting that (1) prior knowledge of advanced limb coordination techniques is useful for beginners, and (2) practice of less advanced techniques improved climbing fluency (GIE) similarly to advanced techniques.
REFERENCE: Percept Mot Skills. 2002 Aug;95(1):3-9.

Entropy as a global variable of the learning process

Author: P. Cordier, MM France, J. Pailhous, B. Bolon | Year: 1994
Summary/Results: The study’s authors looked at how entropy (defined as movement of the center of mass from an ‘ideal’ trajectory for the route) differs between expert and non-expert climbers on a trial of 10 routes in a row.  The study’s authors found that experts stabilize their climbing entropy by trial 3 while non-experts stabilize their climbing entropy by trial 6 (of 10).  Beta-Angel note: from a practical standpoint, this both (1) suggests that climbers should do routes multiple times while perfecting climbing fluency, and (2) suggests a set of parameters for the number of repeat attempts on a route based on ability level in order to improve climbing economy.  As a side note, this paper is also a foundational treatise on how we learn as climbers.
Reference: Human Movement Sciene 13 (1994) 745-763

Thermodynamic study of motor behavior optimization

AUTHORS: P. Cordier, MM France, P. Bolon, J. Pailhous | Year: 1994
SUMMARY/RESULTS: See: Entropy, degrees of freedom, and free climbing: a thermodynamic study of a complex behavior based on trajectory analysis.
REFERENCE: Acta Biotheoretica September 1994, Volume 42, Issue 2–3, pp 187–201

Entropy, degrees of freedom, and free climbing: a thermodynamic study of a complex behavior based on trajectory analysis

AUTHORS: P. Cordier, MM France, B. Bolon, J. Pailhous | Year: 1993
SUMMARY/RESULTS: Researchers measured the “geometric entropy” of movement (defined as movement of the center of mass from an ‘ideal’ trajectory for the route) on three average climbers and four skilled climbers over 10 successive tries of a moderate climb. Cordier et al. showed that entropy decreases as learning progresses. Beta-Angel note: see “Thermodynamic study of motor behavior optimization” for more by the same authors.
REFERENCE: International Journal of Sport Psychology 1993 Vol.24 No.4 pp.370-378 ref.13
https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19941800912 and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232447992_Entropy_degrees_of_freedom_and_free_climbing_A_thermodynamic_study_of_a_complex_behavior_based_on_trajectory_analysis